Mining the future


  • India is the 2nd largest crude steel producer in the world, with 120 MT of crude steel produced in FY’22. 
  • Production of Total Finished Steel stood at 111.858 MT showing a growth of 21.3% over the year.
    • India Exported 13.5 MT of Finished Steel amounting to INR one lakh crores during FY’22
    • Over 2030-31, crude steel actual production forecasted to reach 255 MT
    • Per capita finished steel consumption is expected to rise to 160 kg by 2030-31 (from 72.3 kg in 2021)
    • Domestic stainless steel demand expected to reach 20 MT by 2047
    • Secondary steel sector and consumers as target of achieving 300 MT of steel capacity by the year 2030


  • India is home to 1,303 mines which reported mineral production (excluding atomic, fuel, and minor minerals) in 2019-20 and produces 95 minerals – 4 fuel-related, 10 metallic, 23 non-metallic, 3 atomic, and 55 minor minerals.
  • India is the 2nd largest producer of coal, all India production in 2021-22 was 777.31 MT (P) with a growth of 8.55%.
  • Coal is projected to remain the largest single source of electricity in India in 2040.
  • Coal production from captive mines is expected to touch 140 mn ton in 2022

The country’s FDI Policy for the metals and mining sector allows:

  • 100% FDI through automatic route in the steel sector
  • 100% FDI through automatic route in the mining sector
  • 100% FDI for coal and lignite under automatic route

For further details, please refer FDI Policy


  • MT

    Domestic steel production capacity by 2030

  • $ bn

    FDI equity inflows to metallurgical industries and mining (Apr 2000 - June 2022)

  • $ mn

    FDI equity inflows to coal production (Apr 2000 - June 2022)

Largest sponge iron (DRI) producer

Second largest crude steel and coal producer in the world

Fourth largest iron ore producer in the world

Industry Scenario

With the launch of the National Mineral Policy 2019 and the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Act 2021, India presents a major opportunity for investors looking to invest in the metal industry in India.

India has large reserves of Iron ore, Bauxite, Chromium, Manganese ore, Baryte, Rare earth and Mineral salts.

The Metals and Mining sector in India is expected to witness a major reform in the next few years, owing to reforms such as Make in India Campaign, Smart Cities, Rural Electrification, and a focus on building renewable energy projects under the National Electricity Policy as well as the rise in infrastructure development.

Ministry of Coal launched the fifth tranche, second attempt of fourth tranche and second attempt of third tranche of commercial coal mine auction on March 30, 2022.

The 3rd round of auction have 88 coal blocks offered and the 4th round of auction held in December 2021 offered 99 coal mines, of which 59 are fully explored with 40 partially explored.

Production level of important minerals in September 2022 were: Coal 580 lakh tonnes, Lignite 27 lakh tonnes, Natural gas (utilized) 2791 million cu. m., Petroleum (crude) 24 lakh tonnes, Bauxite 1667 thousand tonnes, Chromite 116 thousand tonnes, Copper conc. 10 thousand tonnes , Gold 92 kg, Iron ore 166 lakh tonnes, Lead conc. 22 thousand tonnes, Manganese ore 163 thousand tonnes, Zinc conc. 45 thousand tonnes, Limestone 305 lakh tonnes, Phosphorite 150 thousand tonnes, Magnesite 10 thousand tonnes, and Diamond 70 carat.

Important minerals showing positive growth during September 2022 over September 2021 include: Phosphorite (87.6%), Diamond (37.3%), Copper conc (18.5%), Coal (12.1%), Iron Ore (9.1%), Bauxite (5.5%) and Limestone (4.7%). 

19 coals blocks were auctioned in 2020 for commercial mining. The total expected revenue from these mines is around INR 7,000 cr with a combined peak capacity of 51 MPTA.

The Average Index of Industrial Production of Manufacturing of basic metals in the FY 2021-22 is 177.3 and has grown by 18.4% 

Coal production (weight: 10.33 %) increased by 12% in September 2022 over September 2021. Its cumulative index increased by 21% during April to September 2022-23 over corresponding period of the previous year.

Steel production (weight: 17.92%) increased by 6.7% in September 2022 over September 2021. Its cumulative index increased by 6.4 % during April to September 2022-23 over the corresponding period of previous year.

Recognising the importance of bringing sustainability in coal mining, a “Sustainable Development Cell” has been created in Ministry of Coal and in all coal PSUs to promote adoption of better environment management practices in coal mines.

* provisional



  • Cost advantage

    Cost advantage in steel and alumina production-conversion

  • Rising demand from infrastructure and transportation sectors

    Schemes such as Housing for all by 2022 and expansion of railway network

  • Unexplored mines

    Only 20% of the total reserves of minerals have been mined till now

  • Supportive government policies

    Permission granted to captive mines to sell coal in open market

  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan

    Production Linked Incentive scheme in specialty steel sector has been introduced under Atmanirbhar Bharat 3.0 package

  • Single Window Clearance Portal

    A unified platform that facilitates the grant of clearances and approvals required for starting a coal mine in India


Production Linked Incentives (PLI) Scheme

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has given its approval to introduce the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme in Specialty Steel for Enhancing India’s Manufacturing Capabilities and Enhancing Exports – Atmanirbhar Bharat. The last date of application was 15th September 2022, and the applications are now closed.

  • INR 6,322 cr

    Scheme outlay

Industrial Land Bank Portal

GIS - based map displaying available infrastructure for setting up business operations in the state.

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Asked Questions

Who grants Mining Leases (ML) and Prospecting License-cum-Mining Lease (PL-cum-ML)?

As per the Mines and Minerals (Development & Regulation) Act (MMDR) Amendment Act 2015, the grant of Mining Leases (ML) and Prospecting License-cum-Mining Lease (PL-cum-ML) happens only through an auction process.

For more information, click here.

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Who grants mineral concessions in India?

The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the MMDR Act, 1957, and Mineral Concession Rules (MCR), 1960. Under the provisions of the MMDR Act, 1957 and MCR, 1960, prior approval of the Central Government is required in the several cases.

For more information, click here.


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Who has the authority to grant mining license?

Mineral Resources Department & respective State Government is empowered to sanction Prospecting License/Mining Lease.

For more information, click here.

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What are the precautions to be taken for filing applications for obtaining Mineral Concessions?

The application must be filled within the prescribed format as per Mineral Concession Rule 2016. Entries must be complete in all respect and should be supported with documentary evidences as per the Rule.

For more information, click here.

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What kind of mines does Central Government own?

The Central Government is the owner of the minerals underlying the ocean within the territorial waters or the Exclusive Economic Zone of India.

For more information, click here.

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