Resilient and well capitalised banking system

The Banking industry in India has historically been one of the most stable systems globally, despite global upheavals.

Historically Indian banking has benefited from high savings rates and growth in savings as well as disposable income growth.

  • Number of offline and online ATMs – 252,000 (as on Mar 2022) 
  • Total bank branches: ~123,000 
  • Total Deposits – $2 Tn 

The Banking industry in India has historically been one of the most stable systems globally, despite global upheavals. The health of the Indian banking system is robust, fortified by a multi-year low non-performing loans and adequate level of capital and liquidity buffers.

The population covered with bank accounts increased from 53% in FY 16 to 78% in FY 21. For the first time, the Gross Non-Performing Asset (GNPA) of SCBs has decreased to a 7-year low of 5% in Sept 2022, and the Net NPA has declined to a 10-year low of 1.3%. The continuous improvement in asset quality is seen in the declining GNPA ratio of NBFCs from the peak of 7.2% recorded during the second wave of the pandemic (Jun 2021) to 5.9% in Sept 2022, reaching close to the pre-pandemic level.

There are more than 1.6 Lakh bank branches translating to approximately 15 branches per 1 Lakh of population. This is further complemented by a network of 2.17 lakh ATMs, out of which 47% are in rural and semi-urban areas. Banking services have been made accessible to every village within a 5 km radius in 25 states and 7 Union Territories covering 99.94% of villages.

Key Budget 2023 announcements

  • Simplification of KYC process: The KYC process will be simplified adopting a ‘risk-based’ instead of ‘one size fits all’ approach
  • Entity Digilocker: to be set up for use by MSMEs, large business and charitable trusts. This will be towards storing and sharing documents online securely, with various authorities, regulators, banks and other business entities
  • Credit Guarantee for MSMEs: the revamped credit guarantee scheme will take effect from 1st Apr 2023 through infusion of INR 9,000 Cr in the corpus
  • National Financial Information Registry: Proposed to serve as the central repository of financial and ancillary information
  • GIFT-IFSC: Permitting acquisition financing by IFSC Banking Units of foreign banks; Establishing a subsidiary of EXIM Bank for trade re-financing
  • Improving Governance and Investor Protection in Banking Sector
  • Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav Mahila Samman Bachat Patra: One-time new small savings scheme, Mahila Samman Savings Certificate, to be made available for a 2 year period up to Mar 2025
  • Senior Citizen Savings Scheme

For further information, please refer the FDI policy

  • Mn

    Number of ATMs (including Micro ATMs)

  • $ Tn

    Total Deposits (Approx)

  • No. of Schedule Commercial Banks

  • $ Tn

    Bank Credit SCBs (FY 23)

Tele density has reached up to 93%, over a Bn people have a digital ID document, more than 80% have bank accounts, and as of 2022, over 6 Bn of digital payment transactions are completed per month.  

Number of PMJDY accounts has grown more than three-fold from 147.2 Mn in Mar 2015 to over 500 Mn in Aug 2023

Industry Scenario

The consolidated balance sheet of SCBs registered double digit growth in FY 22, after a gap of 7 years

  • The credit growth to the MSME sector has been remarkably high, over 30.6% (on avg. during Jan-Nov 2022) supported by the extended Emergency Credit Linked Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS) of the Union government
  • The share of MSMEs in gross credit offtake to the industry rose from 17.7 % (Jan 2020) to 23.7% (Nov 2022)
  • At the end of FY23, the banking sector reported deposits of ~$2.2 Tn and loans of ~$1.67 Tn, leading to a credit-deposit ratio of 75.8% (highest in the past three years)
  • Scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) reported a robust credit growth of 15.4% in FY23 (11 year high) compared to 9.7% in FY22. The growth was powered by personal loans, loans to the services sector, and agriculture and allied activities. Personal loans registered a growth of 20.6% in FY23 as compared to 12.6% in the year-ago period, primarily driven by housing loans.
  • New bank branches opened by SCBs increased by 4.6% during FY 22. The growth was led by new branches opened in Tier 4, Tier 5 and Tier 6 centres


  • The growing importance of the NBFC sector in the Indian financial system is reflected in the consistent rise of NBFCs’ credit as a proportion to GDP
  • NBFCs continued to deploy the largest quantum of credit from their balance sheets to the industrial sector, followed by retail, services, and agriculture
  • The continuous improvement in asset quality is seen in the declining GNPA ratio of NBFCs from the peak of 7.2% in June 2021 to 5.9% in Sept 2022. The personal loans portfolio of NBFCs grew the most during the last four-year period {compound annual growth rate (CAGR) being more than 30 per cent} resulting in increase of its share in total loan portfolio to 31.2% in Mar 2023
  • Credit extended by NBFCs has picked up momentum, with the aggregate outstanding amount at INR 31.5 Lakh Cr as of September 2022. NBFCs continued to deploy the largest quantum of credit from their balance sheets to the industrial sector, followed by retail, services, and agriculture.

Key Government & Regulatory Initiatives

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana: The world’s largest financial inclusion initiative, “Jan Dhan Yojna”, has helped in new bank account enrolment of 486+ Mn beneficiaries, with 265+ Mn being women
  • Scheme for Setting up of Wholly Owned Subsidiaries (WOS) by foreign banks in India: In 2013, the RBI published guidelines for setting up of WOS by foreign banks in India to promote foreign investments into the sector
  • Introduction of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) loans in a fully digital and hassle-free manner
  • Aadhaar e-KYC authentication for NBFC/Non-Banking entities: All NBFCs, payment system providers and payment system participants can now obtain Aadhaar Authentication Licence (KUA/sub-KUA)
  • Establishment of Digital Banking units: In 2022, 75 DBUs were announced in 75 districts of the country to commemorate 75 years of India’s independence


  • Large consumption market

    India will become the 3rd largest consumer economy by 2030, driven by a young population comprising 65% population below the age of 35 years

  • Rural Digitization

    Digital adoption continues to be propelled by rural India – clocking an 8% YoY growth to 333 Mn internet users (37% of rural population). Rural consumption accounts for 45% of all data consumption in India. Now there are 7 Rural Internet Subscriber, for every 10 Urban Internet Subscribers.

  • Number of Smartphone Users

    India already has the 2nd highest number of smartphone users globally, and is the 2nd largest Internet user market

  • Digital Push

    Mobile banking internet banking, neo-banking and rise in digital products and solutions by private and Government of India support: 93% digital payments (by volume) done via mobile (2021) and over 1 Bn cards are in circulation


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Asked Questions

What are some of the Government banking schemes?

Some of the important Government initiatives undertaken in the banking sector in India are:
•    Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
•    Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY)
•    Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana
•    Atal Pension Yojana (APY)
•    Stand-Up India Scheme
•    Pradhan Mantri  Vaya Vandana Yojana
•    Public Provident Fund
•    Senior Citizens Sacings Scheme
•    Sukanya Samriddhi Account

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How can one commence a banking business in India?

Any entity desiring to carry on banking business in India are required to obtain a licence from the Reserve Bank of India. 'Banking business', as per Section 6 of the Banking Regulation Act, refers to acceptance of public deposits for the purpose of lending or investment, which would be repayable and capable of withdrawal, and includes guarantee and indemnity business, discounting, dealing in negotiable instruments, underwriting, participating or managing of any issue, and other incidental activities.

For more information, please visit the RBI website here.

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Can banking activities be undertaken at GIFT-IFSC?

Yes, a banking entity (both Indian and Foreign banks) can operate as IFSC Banking Unit (IBU) after getting a license from IFSCA. 

For more information, please read the IFSCA (Banking) Regulations 2020 available here

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Where can one find information related to the Banking sector in India?

Information related to the banking sector of India (rules, regulations, guidelines, statistics etc) are available on the RBI website here and on the Department of Financial Services, Government of India website here.

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What are the different kinds of banks included under the banking sector in India?

Banks in India can be broadly categorised in 2 categories: commercial banks and cooperative banks.

Commercial banks include: government-owned banks or public-sector banks (PSBs), private banks, branches or subsidiaries of foreign banks, small finance banks (scheduled commercial banks), and regional rural banks, which provide credit facilities for agricultural purposes to rural areas. 

Cooperative banks are divided into 2 categories: urban cooperative banks; and state cooperative banks that provide financing services to small borrowers.
The RBI has recently introduced payments banks to provide basic banking and remittance related facilities and accept small deposits.

Since there are different categories of banks set up for different purposes, there are various statutes and regulations made under these statutes that govern and regulate banks set up for specific purposes. For more information, please visit the RBI website here .

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