• Is a Liaison Office (LO) in India of Foreign corporation subject to TP Provisions?

    The residential status of LO in India of an enterprise outside India is that of a “non-resident” for Indian tax purposes. Since the LO is not taxable in India as they do not indulge in income generating activities, transfer pricing provisions are not applicable for LO. However, if a LO constitutes a PE in India, it will be subject to tax in India and will be subject to an appropriate attribution of profit generated by the foreign enterprise from its operations in India.

  • What are the penal consequences for under-reporting or misreporting of income?

    The penal consequences for non-compliance with Indian transfer pricing regulations are as follows in case of under-reporting or misreporting of income:

    1. A sum equal to 50% of the amount of tax payable on under-reported income
    2. A sum equal to 200% of the amount of tax payable on under-reported income where under-reported income is in consequence of any misreporting
  • Do the transfer pricing rules apply in respect of transactions between head office (HO) and a branch office/project office?

    Where a foreign enterprise has a BO/PO in India, the BO/PO would constitute a non-resident for Indian tax purposes and a separate enterprise under Section 92F(iii) of the Act. Accordingly, the transaction between the BO/PO and the HO will constitute as an international transaction under section 92B of the Act and will be required to meet the arm’s length criteria from an Indian transfer pricing perspective.

    For more information, click here.

  • What are the penal consequences for non-compliance with the Indian Transfer Pricing regulations?

    In case of failure to maintain Transfer Pricing documentation, failure to report the transaction, maintenance or furnishing of incorrect information/document, there is a penalty of 2% of the value of each international/specified domestic transaction.


  • What are the documents required to be maintained by a company while executing an international transaction?

    Transfer pricing documentation requirements are provided under Section 92D of the Act and Rule 10D of the Income-tax Rules, 1962 (Rules).

    The categories of documentation required are:

    • Ownership structure
    • Profile of the multinational group
    • Business description
    • Nature and terms (including prices) of international transactions
    • Description of functions performed, risks assumed and assets employed
    • Record of any financial estimates
    • Record of uncontrolled transaction with third parties and a comparability evaluation
    • Description of methods considered
    • Reasons for rejection of alternative methods
    • Details of transfer pricing adjustments
    • Any other information or data relating to the associated enterprise that may be relevant for determining the arm’s-length price

    A list of additional optional documents is provided in Rule 10D(3).

    In addition, the taxpayer is required to obtain and furnish an Accountant’s Certificate (Form 3CEB) regarding maintenance of documentation. This has to be filed irrespective of the transaction value.

  • Does transfer pricing documentation has to be prepared annually?

    Transfer pricing documentation has to be prepared annually, as per the Indian Transfer Pricing regulations. Full transfer pricing documentation, including an update of the functional analysis and fresh economic analysis using contemporaneous data, must be maintained, in case the total value of international transaction is more than INR 10 million and/or aggregate value of specified domestic transactions exceed INR 200 million.

  • What is the meaning of arm's length price?

    Arm's length price is the price which is applied or proposed to be applied to transactions between persons other than the Associated Enterprises in uncontrolled conditions.

  • What is the materiality limits/threshold for preparing and maintaining transfer pricing (TP) documentation?

    The annual TP documentation is required to be maintained if the aggregate value of all international transactions during the relevant financial year exceeds INR 10 million (approximately US$156,250) and/or specified domestic transactions during the relevant financial year exceed INR 200 million (US$3,125 million).

    The economic analysis is required to be maintained to justify the arm’s length character of the international transaction, irrespective of the transaction value threshold.

  • What are Associated Enterprises (AEs)?

    Section 92A of the Income - tax Act, 1961 specifies that two or more enterprises become associated enterprises when one of them participates, directly or indirectly, or through one or more intermediaries, in the management or control or capital of the other enterprise(s). 

    For further details, please access the following link.

  • What are the different methods to calculate arm’s length price?

    The various methods to calculate the arm’s length price with respect to an international/specified transaction are as under:

    • Comparable uncontrolled price method (CUP)
    • Resale price method (RPM)
    • Cost plus method (CPM)
    • Profit Split Method (PSM)
    • Transactional net margin method (TNMM)
    • Other Method as prescribed by the Board (CBDT)
  • What is the fee for getting work registered under the copyright act?

    The fee is not reimbursable in case of rejection of the application. The fee can be paid by postal order/demand draft/online payment payable to “registrar of copyrights, New Delhi. 

    For information on the fee for getting work registered under the copyright act, click here


  • Where can I file application for registration of copyright for a work?

    The Copyright Office has been set up to provide registration facilities to all types of works and is headed by a Registrar of Copyrights and is located at 4th Floor Jeevan Deep Building, New Delhi- 110 001. The applications for registration of works can be filled at the counter provided at the Copyright Office from 2.30 P.M. to 4.30. P.M. from Monday to Friday. The applications are also accepted by post. On-line registration through “E-filing facility “has been provided from 14th February 2014, which facilitates the applicants to file applications at the time and place chosen by them.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is the procedure for registration of a work under the Copyright Act, 1957?

    The procedure for registration is as follows:
     1) Application for registration is to be made on Form
     2) Separate applications should be made for registration of each work.
     3) Each application should be accompanied by the requisite fee prescribed in the second schedule to the Rules.
     4) The applications should be signed by the applicant or the advocate in whose favour a Vakalatnama or Power of Attorney has been executed.
     5) The fee is either in the form of Demand Draft, Indian Postal Order favouring ‘Registrar Of Copyright Payable At New Delhi’ or through E-payment

    For more information, click here.

  • Is it necessary to register a work to claim copyright?

    No. Acquisition of copyright is automatic and it does not require any formality. Copyright comes into existence as soon as a work is created and no formality is required to be completed for acquiring copyright.

    For more information, click here.

  • How long I have to wait to get my work to get registered by the Copyright office?

    After you file your application and receive diary number you have to wait for a mandatory period of 30 days so that no objection is filed in the Copyright office against your claim. In case any objection is filed, the Registrar of Copyrights after giving an opportunity of hearing to both the parties, may decide to register the work or otherwise.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is copyright?

    Copyright is a right given by the law to creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings. In fact, it is a bundle of rights including, inter alia, rights of reproduction, communication to the public, adaptation and translation of the work. There could be slight variations in the composition of the rights depending on the work.

    For more information, click here.

  • How can I get copyright registration for my Website?

    A website may be understood as a web-page or set of interconnected web-pages, hosted or stored on a server, and is made available online to members of public. Users can access the information and other underlying work on a website through various means such as scrolling web-pages, using internal hypertext links or a search feature.

    For more information, click here.

  • What does Intellectual Property entail?

    Intellectual Property is the Property, which has been created by exercise of Intellectual Faculty. It refers to creation of mind such as inventions, designs for industrial articles, literary, artistic work, symbols which are ultimately used in commerce. Intellectual Property rights allow the creators or owners to have the benefits from their works when these are exploited commercially. These rights are statutory rights governed in accordance with the provisions of corresponding legislation. Intellectual Property rights reward creativity & human endeavour which fuel the progress of humankind.The intellectual property is classified into seven categories i.e.

    1. Patent
    2. Industrial Design
    3. Trade Mark
    4. Copyright
    5. Geographical Indications
    6. Lay put designs of integrated circuits
    7. Protection of undisclosed information/Trade Secret according to TRIPs agreements

    For more information, click here.

  • Whether unpublished works are registered?(Under the Copyright Act 1957)

    Yes. Both published and unpublished works can be registered. Copyright in works published before 21st January, 1958, i.e., before the Copyright Act, 1957 came in force, can also be registered, provided the works still enjoy copyright. Three copies of published work may be sent along with the application. If the work to be registered is unpublished, a copy of the manuscript has to be sent along with the application for affixing the stamp of the Copyright Office in proof of the work having been registered. In case two copies of the manuscript are sent, one copy of the same duly stamped will be returned, while the other will be retained, as far as possible, in the Copyright Office for record and will be kept confidential. It would also be open to the applicant to send only extracts from the unpublished work instead of the whole manuscript and ask for the return of the extracts after being stamped with the seal of the Copyright Office. When a work has been registered as unpublished and subsequently it is published, the applicant may apply for changes in particulars entered in the Register of Copyright in Form V with prescribed fee.The process of registration and fee for registration of copyright is same.

    For further details please access following link.

  • What is the scope of protection in the Copyright Act, 1957?

    The Copyright Act, 1957 protects original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and cinematograph films and sound recordings from unauthorized uses. Unlike the case with patents, copyright protects the expressions and not the ideas. There is no copyright protection for ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such (Please see Article 9.2. of TRIPS).

    For more information, click here.

  • What is defined as an article under the Designs Act?

    Under the Designs Act, 2000 the "article" means any article of manufacture and any substance, artificial, or partly artificial and partly natural; and includes any part of an article capable of being made and sold separately.

    For more information, click here.

  • Can the same applicant make an application for the same design again, if the prior application has been abandoned?

    Yes, the same applicant can apply again since no publication of the abandoned application is made by the Patent Office, provided the applicant does not publish the said design in the meanwhile.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is the penalty for using a registered design under the design act?

    If anyone contravenes the copyright in a design, he is liable for every offence to pay a sum not exceeding INR25,000/- to the registered proprietor subject to a maximum of INR50,000/- recoverable as contract debt in respect of any one design.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is meant by ‘Design’ under the Designs Act, 2000?

     ‘Design’ means only the features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament or composition of lines or colour or combination thereof applied to any article whether two dimensional or three dimensional or in both forms, by any industrial process or means, whether manual, mechanical or chemical, separate or combined, which in the finished article appeal to and are judged solely by the eye, but does not include any mode or principle or construction or anything which is in substance a mere mechanical device, and does not include any trade mark.

    For more information, click here.

  • Why is it important to file the application for registration of design at the earliest possible?

    First-to-file rule is applicable for registrability of design. If two or more applications relating to an identical or a similar design are filed on different dates only first application will be considered for registration of design.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is piracy of a design?

    If anyone contravenes the copyright in a design, s/he is liable for every offence to pay a sum not exceeding Rs. 25,000/- to the registered proprietor subject to a maximum of Rs. 50,000/- recoverable as contract debt in respect of any one design. The registered proprietor may bring a suit for the recovery of the damages for any such contravention and for injunction against repetition of the same.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is it possible to transfer the right of ownership under the Designs Act, 2000?

    Yes, it is possible to transfer the right through assignment, agreement, transmission with terms and condition in writing or by operation of law subject to certain restrictive conditions. An application in form-10, with prescribed fees in respect of one design and appropriate fees for each additional design, for registration of the transfer documents is required to be made by the beneficiary to the Controller within six months from the date of execution of the instruments or within further period not exceeding six months in aggregate. An original/notarized copy of the instrument to be registered is required to be enclosed with the application.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is it mandatory to make the article by industrial process or means before making an application for registration of design?

    No, design means a conception or suggestion or idea of a shape or pattern which can be applied to an article or capable to be applied by industrial process or means. Example: a new shape which can be applied to a pen thus capable of producing a new appearance of a pen on the visual appearance. It is not mandatory to produce the article first and then make an application.

    For more information, click here

  • How one can ascertain whether registration subsists in respect of any design?

    For ascertaining whether registration subsists in respect of a design, a request should be made to the Patent Office, Kolkata. If the Design number is known, the request should be made on Form 6, otherwise on Form 7, together with prescribed fees. Each such request should be confined to information in respect of a single design.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is the most appropriate time for filing the registration of designs?

    First-to-file rule is applicable for registrability of design. If two or more applications relating to an identical or a similar design are filed on different dates only first application will be considered for registration of design.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is the function of a trademark? (Under the Trade Marks Act 1999)

    Under modern business condition a trademark performs four functions: 

    1) It identifies a good/service and its origin.
    2) It guarantees its unchanged quality.
    3) It advertises the goods/services.
    4) It creates an image for good/services.

    For further details please access following link.


  • Under the Trade Marks Act 1999, who benefits from a trademark?

    The registered proprietor of a trademark can create, establish and protect the goodwill of his products or services. He/she can stop traders from unlawfully using his trademark, sue for damages and secure destruction of infringing goods or labels.

    The government earns revenue as a fee for registration and protection of registration of trademark.

    The legal professionals render services to the entrepreneurs regarding selection, registration and protection of trademarks and get remuneration for the same. The purchaser and ultimately consumers of goods and services get options to choose the best.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is a trademark?(Under the Trade Marks Act 1999)

    A trademark (popularly known as brand name) is a visual symbol which may be a word signature, name, device, label, numerals or combination of colours used by one undertaking on goods or services or other articles of commerce to distinguish it from other similar goods or services originating from a different undertaking.

    For more information, click here.

  • How do I file a trademark application for my brand?

    The Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks has information regarding trademark form and fees.

    For more information, click here

  • Does the Trade Marks Registry help to select a trademark agent to prepare and prosecute trademarks application?

    Yes, Trade Marks Registry had published a list of facilitators who are willing to facilitate filing trademark applications for start-ups and act as a trademark agent on their behalf. Their fees for this purpose have also been notified.

    For more information, click here.

  • What are the legal requirements to register a trademark in India?

    The legal requirements to register a trademark under the Act are:

    The selected mark should be capable of being represented graphically (that is in the paper form).

    • It should be capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of others.

    • It should be used or proposed to be used mark in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services and some person have the right to use the mark with or without identity of that person.

    For more information, click here

  • Can any correction be made in the application or the trademark register?

    Yes. However, the basic principle is that the trademark applied for should not be substantially altered affecting its identity. Subject to this, changes are permissible according to rules detailed in the subordinate legislation.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is there a possibility to get a registered trademark removed?

    It can be removed on application to the Registrar on prescribed form on the ground that the mark is wrongly remaining on the register.

    For more information, click here.

  • What does the trademark register contain?

    The register of trademark currently maintained in electronic form contains inter alia the trademark the class and goods/ services in respect of which it is registered including particulars affecting the scope of registration of rights conferred; the address of the proprietors; particulars of trade or other description of the proprietor; the convention application date (if applicable); where a trademark has been registered with the consent of proprietor of an earlier mark or earlier rights, that fact.

    For more information, click here.

  • What are the sources of trademark laws?

    The national statues i.e., The Trade Marks Act, 1999 and rules made are as under:

    ·       International multilateral convention.

    ·       National bilateral treaty.

    ·       Regional treaty

    ·       Decision of the courts

    ·       Office practice reduced in Manuals and guidelines and rulings of the Courts.

    ·       Decision of Intellectual Appellate Board.

    ·       Text books written by academician ad professional experts

    For more information, click here.

  • Is there any provision for early examination of patent application?

    There is no provision for filing a request for early examination of patent application. The applications are examined in the order in which requests for examination are filed. However, an express request for examination before expiry of 31 months can be made in respect of the applications filed under Patent Cooperation Treaty known as National Phase applications by payment of the prescribed fee.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is it necessary to file a provisional application for Patents?

    Generally, when an invention is not complete an application can be filed with provisional specification which is known as provisional application. This is useful in establishing a priority date for your invention.

    For more information, click here.

  • What are the contents of the Patent Office Journal?

    The Patent office Journal contains information relating to patent applications which are published u/s 11A, post grant publication, restoration of patent, notifications, list of nonworking patents and public notices issued by the Patent Office.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is it possible to file international application under Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) in India?

    Yes, it is possible to file an international application known as PCT application in India in the Patent Offices located at Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, and Delhi. All these offices act as Receiving Offices (RO) for International application.  

    For address of these offices, website is: www.ipIndia.nic.in

    For more information, click here.

  • What is a Patent?

    A Patent is a statutory right for an invention granted for a limited period of time to the patentee by the Government, in exchange of full disclosure of his invention for excluding others, from making, using, selling, importing the patented product or process for producing that product for those purposes without his consent.

    For more information, click here.

  • Where can one find the information relating to published/ granted patent application?

    The information relating to the patent application is published in the Patent Office Journal issued on every Friday. This is also available in electronic form on the website of the Patent Office, www.ipindia.nic.in

    For more information, click here.


  • What can be patented?

    An invention relating either to a product or process that is new, involving inventive step and capable of industrial application can be patented.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is the term of a patent in the Indian system?

    The term of every patent granted is 20 years from the date of filing of application. However, for application filed under national phase under Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT), the term of patent will be 20 years from the international filing date accorded under PCT.

    For more information, click here.

  • What happens to a patent application once it is examined?

    After examination, the Patent Office issues an examination report to the applicant, which is generally known as First Examination Report (FER). Thereafter, the applicant is required to comply with the requirements within a period of twelve months from the date of FER. In case, the application is found to be in order for grant, the patent is granted, provided there is no pre-grant opposition filed or pending.

    For more information, click here.

  • Who can apply for a patent? (Under The Patents Act 1970)

    A patent application can be either filled by true and first inventor or his assignee, either alone or jointly with any other person. However, legal representative of any deceased person can also make an application for patent. 

    For further details please access following link.

  • After what age can a person start working in India?

    In India, child below 14 years cannot be employed. However, there are following exceptions which includes non-hazardous family enterprises and child working as an artist in an audio-visual entertainment industry.

    Additionally, a child above 14 years but below 15 years of age can be employed only for 4.5 hours a day and cannot work during the night.

    For more information, click here.

  • Is an employer required to maintain any register and record under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948?

    Every employer must maintain a muster-roll-cum-wage register and also a bound inspection book. (Rule 27 & 28) of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948.

    For more information, click here.

  • I employed 20 Contract Labour only on one day, will my establishment be covered under Contract Labour (R & A) Act, 1970?


    For further details please access following link.

  • Is there anything that I need to adhere to, before recruiting women for my company?

    The following need to be adhered to for recruiting women in a company:

    • Every employer employing more than 10 workers shall constitute an “Internal Complaints Committee” (ICC) to address any complaints of the women employee related to sexual harassment. 
    • Women employees are entitled to 12-26 weeks of maternity leave.  
    • Moreover, women are not to be allowed to work in a factory between 10:00 pm to 5:00 am. 

    For more information, click here.

  • Can employees file application in groups for claiming minimum wages under the act?

    A single application can be made on behalf or in respect of any number of employees as per The Minimum Wages Act, 1948.

    For more information, click here.


  • If a Trade Union has an identical name with another, will it be registered?

    Registrar of Trade Union shall not register that union, until they make a change in the identical name under the Trade Union Act.

  • What are the privileges in terms of pay that laid-off labourers can avail?

    Workers who have completed one year of services are eligible for compensation equal to 50% of total Basic wages and Dearness Allowance.

  • Is it possible to award ten times compensation of the difference amount between wages payable and actually paid, under the minimum wages act?

    The limit of 'ten times the amount of such excess' mentioned in section 20(3)(i) of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 is the maximum limit. When the Authority awards heavy compensation under the said section, it must give reasons for doing so.

    For more information, click here.


  • Registrar of Trade Union withdrew a union’s registration in view of non performance of certain statutory provisions. Is it possible?

    Registrar has the power only to cancel the registration.  He cannot withdraw the order of registration issued by him.

  • Are there any policies with respect to child labours? If yes, which act?

    Yes, The National Policy on Child Labour declared in August 1987, contains the provisions with respect to employment of child labour.

    For more information, click here.

  • What does the minimum level of acceptance mean under Sebi takeover code?

    'Minimum level of acceptance’ implies minimum number of shares which the acquirer desires under the said conditional offer. If the number of shares validly tendered in the conditional offer are less than the minimum level of acceptance stipulated by the acquirer, then the acquirer is not bound to accept any shares under the offer.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is an open offer under the SAST Regulations, 2011, Under which situations is an open offer required to be made by an acquirer?

    An open offer is an offer made by the acquirer to the shareholders of the target company inviting them to tender their shares in the target company at a particular price. The primary purpose of an open offer is to provide an exit option to the shareholders of the target company on account of the change in control or Substantial acquisition of shares, occurring in the target company.
    If an acquirer has agreed to acquire or acquired control over a target company or shares or voting rights in a target company which would be in excess of the threshold limits, then the acquirer is required to make an open offer to shareholders of the target company.

    For further details please access following link.

  • What is the defined size for an open offer to be made under SEBI takeover code?

    An open offer, other than a voluntary open offer under Regulation 6, must be made for a minimum of 26% of the target company’s share capital. The size of voluntary open offer under Regulation 6 must be for at least 10% of the target company’s share capital. Further the offer size percentage is calculated on the fully diluted share capital of the target company taking into account potential increase in the number of outstanding shares as on 10th working day from the closure of the open offer.

    For more information, click here.

  • What does the term control entail as per the guidelines of CCI?

    “Control” means controlling the affairs or management of a target enterprise or group.

    For more information, click here.

  • What are hostile bids under SEBI takeover code?

    Officially, there is no such term as hostile bid in the regulations. Hostile bid is generally understood to be an unsolicited bid by a person, without any arrangement or MOU with persons currently in control. Any person with or without holding any shares in a target company, can make an offer to acquire shares of a listed company subject to minimum offer size of 26%.

    For more information, click here.


  • Is competition due to Merger and Acquisition covered under any act?

    The competition act 2002 governs the laws and regulations with respect to merger, acquisition and amalgamation transactions. Competition commission of India is the governing body.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is a ‘Target Company’?

    A 'Target Company' is the company/body corporate or corporation whose equity shares are listed in a stock exchange and in which a change of shareholding or control is proposed by an acquirer.

    For more information, click here.


  • What is the procedure to report an acquisition that is made in India?

    In respect of acquisitions under clause (a) of sub regulation (1), and clauses (e) and (f) of sub regulation (4), the acquirer shall intimate the stock exchanges where the shares of the target company are listed, the details of the proposed acquisition in such form as may be specified, at least four working days prior to the proposed acquisition, and the stock exchange shall forthwith disseminate such information to the public.

    For more information, click here.

  • What is National Company Law Tribunal?

    The National Court of Law Tribunal has been formed under the Companies Act, 2013 setup as a quasi-judicial body for corporate law purposes. NCLT is one of the recent reforms undertaken by the government in corporate law.

    For more information, click here.


  • Who is an ‘Acquirer’?

    Acquirer means any person who, whether by himself, or through, or with persons acting in concert with him, directly or indirectly, acquires or agrees to acquire shares or voting rights in, or control over a target company. An acquirer can be a natural person, a corporate entity or any other legal entity. 

    For further details please access following link.

  • How is the residential status of a company determined?

    A Company is said to be resident in India in any previous year, if: 

    1. It is an Indian company or
    2. Its place of effective management, at any time in that year, is in India For more information, click

    For more information, click here 

  • How does the Government collect Income-tax?

    Taxes are collected by the Government through three means: a) voluntary payment by taxpayers into various designated Banks. For example, Advance Tax and Self Assessment Tax paid by the taxpayers, b) Taxes deducted at source [TDS] from the income of the receiver, and c) Taxes collected at source [TCS]. It is the constitutional obligation of every person earning income to compute his income and pay taxes correctly.​

  • Whether a company having a SEZ unit or being SEZ developer need to have separate registration?

    Yes. A person having SEZ unit or being SEZ developer shall have to apply for a separate registration, as distinct from his place of business located outside the SEZ in the same state or union territory.

  • What is the monetary threshold for applicability of MF (Master file) regulations for a CE?

    Every person, being a CE of an international group operating in India, shall file such details in part A to Form 3CEAA. Further, such person shall also be required to file additional details as required under part B of Form No. 3CEAA if it satisfies the following criteria:

    1. If the consolidated group revenue of the international group, of which such person is a constituent entity, as reflected in the consolidated financial statement of the international group for the accounting year, exceeds INR 5 Bn
    2. The aggregate value of international transactions:
    • During the accounting year, as per the books of accounts, exceeds INR 500 Mn
    • In respect of purchase, sale, transfer, lease or use of intangible property during the accounting year, as per the books of accounts, exceeds INR 100 Mn
  • What are the stamp duty rates being implemented through the Amended Indian Stamp Act?

    Stamp Duty Rates w.e.f. 1st July 2020

    Instrument Rate
    Issue of Debenture 0.005%
    Transfer and Re-issue of debenture 0.0001%
    Issue of security other than debenture 0.005%
    Transfer of security other than debenture on delivery basis 0.015%
    Transfer of security other than debenture on non-delivery basis  0.003%
    (i) Futures (Equity and Commodity) 0.002%
    (ii) Options (Equity and Commodity) 0.003%
    (iii) Currency and Interest Rate Derivatives 0.0001%
    (iv) Other Derivatives 0.002%
    Government Securities 0%
    Repo on Corporate Bond 0.00001%


  • Which are the cases in which registration is compulsory?

    As per Section 24 of the CGST/SGST Act, the following categories of persons shall be required to be registered compulsorily irrespective of the threshold limit:
    i) persons making any inter-State taxable supply;
    ii) casual taxable persons;
    iii) persons who are required to pay tax under reverse charge;
    iv) electronic commerce operators required to pay tax under sub-section (5) of section 9;
    v) non-resident taxable persons;
    vi) persons who are required to deduct tax under section 51;
    vii) persons who supply goods and/or services on behalf of other registered taxable persons whether as an agent or otherwise;
    viii) Input service distributor (whether or not separately registered under the Act)
    ix) persons who are required to collect tax under section 52;
    x) every electronic commerce operator
    xi) every person supplying online information and data base retrieval services from a place outside India to a person in India, other than a registered person; and,
    xii) such other person or class of persons as may be notified by the Central Government or a State Government on the recommendations of the Council.

  • What is the period for which a taxpayer’s income is taken into account for the purpose of calculating income-tax?

    Income-tax is levied on the annual income of a taxpayer. The year under the Income-tax Law is the period starting from 01 April and ending on 31 March of the next calendar year. The Income-tax Law classifies the year as (1) Previous year and (2) Assessment year.

    The year in which income is earned is called as previous year and the year in which the income is charged to tax or is assessed is called the assessment year. For example, income earned during the period of 01 April 2019 to 31 March 2020 is treated as income of the previous year 2019-20. Income of the previous year 2019-20 will be charged to tax in the next year, i.e., in the assessment year 2020-21.

  • What are the recent changes in Corporate Income Tax (CIT) for domestic companies?

    With effect from tax year 2019-20, domestic companies shall have an option to pay income tax at the rate of 22% plus 10% surcharge and 4% cess taking the effective tax rate (ETR) to 25.17%, subject to the condition that they will not avail specified tax exemptions or incentives under the Income Tax Act. New domestic manufacturing companies, incorporated on or after 1 October 2019 and commencing manufacturing on or before 31 March 2023, making fresh investments in manufacturing, will have an option to avail an even lower tax rate of 15% plus 10% surcharge and 4% cess taking the ETR to 17.16%

  • Which instruments are covered under Part AA of Chapter II of the amended Stamp Act and the Rules made thereunder?

    Each security is charged with a duty as specified in Schedule I of the amended Stamp Act. Securities are defined to include all those instruments specified in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956; a “derivative” as defined in clause (a) of Section 45U of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934; a certificate of deposit, commercial usance bill, commercial paper and such other debt instrument of original or initial maturity up to one year as the Reserve Bank of India may specify from time to time; repo on corporate bonds; and any other instrument declared by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, to be securities for the purposes of this Act.

    For more information on Indian Stamp Act, 1899, click here. For more details about the amendments, refer here.

  • What is Form 26AS?

    A taxpayer may pay tax in any of the following forms:
    (1) Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)
    (2) Tax Collected at Source (TCS)
    (3) Advance tax or Self-assessment Tax or Payment of tax on regular assessment.
    The Income-tax Department maintains the database of the total tax paid by the taxpayer (i.e., tax credit in the account of a taxpayer).  Form 26AS is an annual statement maintained under Rule 31AB​ of the Incom​e-tax Rules disclosing the details of tax credit in his account as per the database of Income-tax Department. In other words, Form 26AS will reflect the details of tax credit appearing in the Permanent Account Number of the taxpayer as per the database of the Income-tax Department. The tax credit will cover TDS, TCS and tax paid by the taxpayer in other forms like advance tax, Self-Assessment tax, etc.
    Income-tax Department will generally allow a taxpayer to claim the credit of taxes as reflected in his Form 26AS.

  • When should the bill of entry be filed and what are its different kinds?

    Bill of entry can normally be filed to clear the goods after the Import General Manifest (IGM) is presented to the Customs Officers by the Steamer Agents / Airlines, as the case may be. 

    The following are the types of Bill of Entry 

    Home consumption Bill of entry: This has to be filed when the importer wants to clear the goods on payment of duty and remove them to his premises immediately. 

    Into bond Bill of entry:  It is also known as Warehousing Bill of Entry.  This has to be filed when the importer does not want to pay duty immediately but prefers to keep the goods in a warehouse and pay the duty subsequently and clear the goods for home consumption.

    Ex-bond Bill of entry:  This has to be filed when the importer wants to clear the warehoused goods for home consumption on payment of duty

  • What are restricted items and what is the procedure to import them ?

    All goods, import of which is permitted only with an authorisation / permission / license or in accordance with the procedure prescribed in a notification / public notice are ‘restricted’ goods. For import of goods mentioned in Schedule 1 of ITC (HS) Classification of Export & Import 2012, an application for grant of an Import Authorisation may be made to the concerned Regional Authority of DGFT in Aayaat Niryaat Form 2B(ANF 2B) along with documents prescribed therein, with two copies of the complete set to DGFT(HQ) at Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi. The requests for such imports are considered by Inter Ministerial Committee meeting.

  • We want to export prohibited goods. Can we take advance authorization for import of inputs duty free?

    You may avail advance authorization for import of inputs for manufacture of a product which is prohibited for exports. However such authorization will have to meet the following conditions, in addition to usual conditions:

    (i) That the export is made subject to pre-import condition which is manufactured in India using the material imported against the said authorisation; and

    (ii) The facility under rule 18 (rebate of duty paid on materials used in manufacture) or sub-rule (2) of rule 19 of the Central Excise Rules, 2002  should be  availed.

  • Where to obtain an IEC ?

    IEC number is issued by Directory General of Foreign Trade at each regional offices where the exporter/importer is situated. DGFT has recently introduced the facility of issuing Importer Exporter Code in electronic form (e-IEC). For issuance of e-IEC an application can be submitted online on DGFT website: Link. Applicants can upload the documents and pay the required fee through Net banking.

  • What are Rules of Origin (ROO)?

    They are the criteria needed to determine the of a product for purposes of international trade. It is important because duties and restrictions in several cases depend upon the source of imports. Rules of origin are used: to implement measures and instruments of commercial policy such as antidumping duties and safeguard measures;, whether imported products shall receive most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment or preferential treatment, for trade statistics; for the application of labelling and marking requirements; and for government procurement.

  • What is export obligation under post export EPCG Scheme and how the same is fixed?

    The export obligation under post export EPCG Scheme is equivalent to eighty five percent. (85%) of six times the amount which is the sum of applicable Basic duty of customs, additional duty of customs, Education Cess and Secondary and Higher Education Cess paid on goods imported under the said authorisation, on FOB basis, which is to be fulfilled within an export obligation period of six years from the date of issue of the said authorization. However, additional duty of customs shall not be taken for computation for the purpose of fixation of export obligation when the Cenvat Credit in respect of additional duty of customs has not been taken.

  • What are the basic requirements to import goods?

    The requirements are as follows :- 

    submit an application to the Directorate General of Foreign Trade and obtain Importer and Exporter Code (IEC) number

    IEC has to be indicated in the documents filed with the Customs for clearance of the imported goods

    In the case of 100% EOUs / EPZs the importer and Exporter Code (IEC) numbers are allocated by the Development Commissioner of Export Processing Zone concerned.

    Every good imported shall be in conformity with Section 11 of the Customs Act 1962, Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act 1992 read with the EXIM policy in force.

  • What are Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)?

    FTAs are arrangements between two or more countries or trading blocs that primarily agree to reduce or eliminate customs tariff and non tariff barriers on substantial trade between them. FTAs, normally cover trade in goods (such as agricultural or industrial products) or trade in services (such as banking, construction, trading etc.). FTAs can also cover other areas such as intellectual property rights (IPRs), investment, government procurement and competition policy, etc.

  • Can more than one IECs be obtained under a single PAN?

    No, only one IEC could be issued against a  single Permanent Account Number (PAN). If any PAN card holder has more than one IEC, the extra IECs shall be disabled.

    For more information, click here.


  • What are the goods eligible for being financed under the LOCs?

    Under the LOCs, export of capital goods, plant and machinery, industrial manufactures, consumer durables and any other items eligible for being exported under the 'Exim Policy' of the Government of India can be financed.